The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that that is concerned with the, detection, prevention, and treatment of diseases of the mouth cavity and the oral mucosa. Dental problems may cause severe indispositions as pointed out by the World Health Organisation especially among the lower socio-economic groups . Among the various specialties of dentistry, pediatric dentistry is concerned with providing comprehensive oral heathcare for children in their growing years. Restorative dentistry and endodontics deal with the management of the diseases of the teeth and maxillofacial area. Cosmetic/esthetic dentistry serves to reconstruct the dentition according to the needs and aesthetics of the individual. Forensic dentistry/ forensic odontology reports help in the evaluation of dental evidence in criminal cases.
Periodontitis, gingivitis, dental caries, and sensitivity are some of the common diseases that affect the oral cavity. A recent study shows that severe periodontitis may also point to early diabetes.
- Track 1-1: Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Case Reports
- Track 1-2: Case Reports on Pediatric Dentistry
- Track 1-3: Special Care Dentistry Case Reports
- Track 1-4: Endodontics Case Reports
- Track 1-5: Periodontology Case Reports
- Track 1-6: Oral Medicine Case Reports
Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that is associated with providing proper medical and health care to infants, children, and adolescents( from birth through adolescence). The goal of a pediatrician is to treat and diagnose infections, injuries, congenital conditions and organ dysfunctions in a child in order to give him a long disease free life.
Some of the various subspecialties’ of pediatry include:
- Track 2-1: Pediatric Hematology Case Reports
- Track 2-2: Pediatric Pulmonology Case Reports
- Track 2-3: Pediatric Otolaryngology Case Reports
- Track 2-4: Adolescent Medicine Case Reports
- Track 2-5: Pediatric Surgery Case Reports
- Track 2-6: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Case Reports
Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the blood circulatory system and its pump i.e the heart. Disorders of the heart and the vascular system are collectively known as the disorders of the cardiovascular system. Hypertension, Arrhythmias, Coronary artery disease and congenital heart defects are some cardiac disease conditions. Recent topics in cardiology research include radiation associated cardiac disease, pediatric cardiology, cardiovascular imaging studies etc.
- Track 3-1: Case Reports on Cardiogeriatrics
- Track 3-2: Case Reports on Pediatric cardiology
- Track 3-3: Case Reports on Cardiothoracic Surgery
- Track 3-4: Case Reports on Adult Cardiology
Neurology is defined as the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of the nervous system that comprises of the brain and the spinal chord. Extensive research is going on in the study of common neurological disorders like the Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer disease, and migraine.
The neurobiology of bipolar disorder and dissociative identity disorder are also areas of study in this field despite the overlap with the field of psychiatry.
Clinical neuropsychologists evaluate brain-behavior for differential diagnosis, rehabilitation strategies, documenting cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and measuring change over time (e.g., for identifying abnormal aging or tracking the progression of dementia).
In some countries, a sub-specialization of this branch of medicine is called clinical neurophysiology which is associated with nerve conduction studies and electrodiagnostic medicine.
- Track 4-1: Case reports on Brain injury
- Track 4-2: Case Reports on Endovascular surgical neuroradiology
- Track 4-3: Case reports on Clinical neurophysiology
- Track 4-4: Case Reports on Neurodevelopmental disorders
Pathology is derived from the Greek word “pathos” which means suffereing, pathology usually deals with the laboratory diagnosis of samples or body fluids in order to find out about the nature of the illness. The 6 most common pathology tests are liver function test (LFT), full blood examination,iron studies, urine analysis, Thyroid stimulating hormone quantification and Internationalised Normalised Ratio. Pathological research can help in the thorough understanding of human diseases.
Recently a three in one blood test, a first test of its kind has opened the door for precision medicine in prostrate cancer research and hence holds promise to transform the treatment of the disease.
- Track 5-1: Case Reports on Anatomical Pathology
- Track 5-2: Case Reports on Clinical Pathology
- Track 5-3: Case Reports on Molecular Pathology
Oncology is a branch of medicine that focusses on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of malignancy or cancer. Cancers can be broadly classified into carcinomas, sarcomas,leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, brain and spinal chord cancers based on the origin of cancer in the body. Loss of regulation in cell signaling pathways, upregulation or downregulation of a housekeeping protein, metastasis, and evasion of the immune system are the major characteristics of any cancer. The occurrence of cancer can be due to both inheritable and environmental reasons. People with autoimmune disorders like (eg. celiac disease) are at a high risk of cancer.
- Track 6-1: Case Reports on Neuro-oncology
- Track 6-2: Case Reports on Breast Oncology
- Track 6-3: Case Reports on Pediatric oncology
- Track 6-4: Case Reports on Oncopathology
- Track 6-5: Case Reports on Molecular Oncology
- Track 6-6: Case Reports on Psycho-oncology
- Track 6-7: Case Reports on Pain and Palliative Oncology
- Track 6-8: Case Reports on Ocular oncology
- Track 6-9: Case Reports on Hemato-Oncology
Drug interactions occur when one drug interacts or interferes with the working of the other. There may be several kinds of drug interactions. Nowadays the increased use of combinatorial treatment for treating diseases demands drug interactions be studied thoroughly before their launch in the market. Sometimes drug interactions can be synergistic or may produce adverse effects which cause problems to the health of the individual. Drug- Disease interactions may worsen or exacerbate an existing medical condition.
Loss of therapeutic effect, unexpected increase in pharmacological activity,toxicity, and several chemical and physical interactions can result.In this respect, two fields namely: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics have come up. The Former deals with the effect of one drug kinetic that affects the adsorption, metabolism, and excretion of the other. Pharmacodynamics is related to the pharmacological activity of the drug. An individual's genetic makeup also affects drug interaction.The study of how an individual's genetic inheritance affects the body's response to drugs is known as Pharmacogenetics. The severity of interactions can be major, moderate or minor.
- Track 7-1: Case Reports on Pharmacology and Toxicology
- Track 7-2: Case Reports on Toxicology
Public heath research is an amalgamation of different disciplines which work together to protect community health through education, research for disease and prevention of injuries. More than one in four adults living with serious mental health problems is also a prey to substance abuse. Substance use problems occur more frequently with certain mental health problems, including
· Anxiety disorders
· Personality disorders
- Track 8-1: Case Reports on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases
- Track 8-2: Case Reports on Clinical Psychology
Obstetrics is a medical specialty that deals with pregnancy, childbirth and pregnancy complications.
Gynecology or “the science of women” is associated with the treatment and diagnosis of female reproductive system and the breasts. These two fields are often compiled together and collectively known as obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN).
Obstetric Cholestasis a common liver disorder where the normal flow of bile from the liver is reduced and occurs frequently among pregnant women.
Cancers of the female reproductive organ like cervical cancers, endometrial and ovarian cancers are studied in a separate subspeciality of gynecology known as gynecological oncology.
Gynecologists use reproductive medicine for abortions, and also to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism leading to maternal mortality during the post partum period.
The first case report of the spread of zika virus through sexual contact was reported in 2016 which made the disease an enduring health challenge.
- Track 9-1: Case Reports on Pediatric Critical Care
- Track 9-2: Gynecologic Oncology
- Track 9-3: Reproductive Endocrinology
- Track 9-4 : Urogynecology
- Track 9-5: Maternal-Fetal medicine
- Track 9-6Pediatric Gynecology
- Track 9-7: Geriatric Gynecology
The first evidence of surgical treatments dates back to the prehistoric era when the Egyptians drilled a hole in the skull to expose the dura matter to treat intracranial diseases and used sutures to close wounds. Surgery in the 21st century comprises of four parts: pre-operative care, staging of the surgery, surgery and post-operative care. Surgeries are classified or grouped into several types based on timing, purpose, body part, type of procedure, degree of invasiveness and equipment used.
Among the various types of surgery the most common are:
Bariatric surgery: this surgery is usually performed on people suffering from obesity. Either the size of the stomach is reduced by using a gastric band or the small intestine is redirected to a smaller stomach pouch. These two techniques are normally used to achieve weight loss.
Pediatric surgery: this surgery involves surgery on children, adolescents, and fetuses with birth defects and other complications.
Cardiothoracic surgery: this type of surgery deals with surgical treatment of the thoracic mainly the heart and chest.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery: this deals with treating disorders and diseases of the mouth or oral cavity and the jaw (maxilla ).
Vascular surgery: it is a surgical subspecialty that is concerned with treating the disorders of the vascular system.
Plastic surgery: a type of surgery that is associated with the reconstruction, restoration or change in the human body.
Plastic surgery may be done for aesthetic reasons as well.
- Track 10-1: Case Reports on Elective Surgery
- Track 10-2: Case Reports on Emergency Surgery
- Track 10-3: Case Reports on Cosmetic and Therapeutic surgery
- Track 10-4: Case Reports on Reconstructive Surgery
- Track 10-5: Case Reports on Reconstructive Surgery
- Track 10-6: Case Reports on Transplant Surgery
- Track 10-7: Case Reports on Minimally Invasive Surgery
This branch of science deals with karyotypic analysis and testing chromosomes, biochemical markers and genetic material, mainly dna extracted from body fluids for the complete and detailed analysis of the disease at the molecular level. Mainly three branches fall under this category: they are molecular genetics, cytogenetics and biochemical genetics.
- Track 11-1: Case Reports on Clinical Genetics
- Track 11-2: Case Reports on Metabolic Genetics
- Track 11-3: Case Reports on Molecular Genetics
- Track 11-4: Case Reports on Mitochondrial Genetics
Any disease caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites and protozoans and can be spread from one individual to the other fall under the category of infectious diseases. Sometimes some helpful microorganisms may become opportunistic pathogens and cause disease.
Diagnosis of these diseases may be done by symptomatic methods, microbial pure cultures, microscopy, biochemical testing, PCR based testing or by metagenomic sequencing using bioinformatic tools.
- Track 12-1: Case Reports on Infection Control and Immunity
Anesthesiology is the practice of medicine dedicated to the relief of pain and total care of the surgical patient before, during and after surgery.
Anesthesiologists along with the surgical team ,work in collaboration to provide medical care to patients. Anesthesia drugs can be used intravenously to induce sedation in patients that work effectively in pain relief.
For acute post-operative pain, sometimes controlled opioid analgesics are also permitted and several case reports regarding the efficacy of this treatment have come up recently in this aspect.
- Track 13-1: Case Reports on Hospice and Palliative Medicine
- Track 13-2: Case Reports on Critical Care Medicine
- Track 13-3: Case Reports on Adult Cardio-Thoracic Anesthesiology
- Track 13-4: Case Reports on Pediatric Anesthesiology
- Track 13-5Case Reports on Pain Medicine
Internal medicine is a special branch of medicine that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organs in an adult individual in a non-surgical manner. The latest research in this field centers around studying liver infections caused by Hepatitis c virus and pulmonology infections.
Emergency medicine is a medical specialty that is associated with providing acute patients immediate medical heed.
Evidence-based medicine is the judicious use of health care medicines based on case reports and evidence-based research.
Tropical medicine is a branch of medicine that is associated with diseases (eg. endemic diseases like malaria, ebola etc) that are difficult to control and is distributed mainly around the tropical and subtropical areas.
- Track 14-1: Case Reports on Internal Medicine
- Track 14-2: Case Reports on Nuclear Medicine
- Track 14-3: Case Reports on Emergency Medicine
- Track 14-4: Case Reports on Evolutionary Medicine
- Track 14-5: Case Reports on Tropical Medicine
- Track 14-6: Case Reports on Sports Medicine
- Track 14-7: Case Reports on Personalised Medicine
- Track 14-8: Case Reports on Alternative Medicine
Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Among diseases of the digestive system, gastrointestinal cancers, intragastric bleeding, GERD, ulcers, dysphagia, odynophagia, regurgitation, inflammatory and infectious disorders are most noticed.
- Track 15-1: Case Reports on Pediatric Gastroenterology
- Track 15-2: Case Reports on Hepatology
Proctology: a specialization branch of medicine that can be associated with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the anus, rectum, and colon. Patients often turn to a proctologist or a colorectal surgeon when they need help with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, there is a mild difference between gastroenterologists and proctologists as the latter expertise in all parts of the GI tract and have an increased knowledge of the small intestine, colon, rectum, and anal canal. There are many disorders that can be treated by colorectal surgeries. Some of them include:
Hemorrhoids: commonly known as piles, hemorrhoids are swellings in the posterior part of the GI tract i.e. the rectum which causes bleeding, pain and distress.
Anal fissures: A small tear in the anus lining.
Fistulas: An infected tunnel between the skin and the anus.
Constipation: Constipation refers to difficulties in bowel movements as it becomes dry and hard to pass.Abdominal pain, bloating can also result because of this condition.
Cecal perforations occur due to direct or secondary injuries in the colon or rectum. Cecal perforations can be indicative of colorectal cancer also.
Radiology is a medical specialty that makes use of imaging techniques to identify, treat and diagnose diseases. There are several imaging techniques that are used. Some of them are radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The branch that deals with using of radiation to treat cancer is known as radiation oncology studies. Radiology studies in the past year, like MR fingerprinting, have seen an advance in the treatment of prostrate cancer and breast cancer. Several uncommon variations in the development of organs and systems can be understood by the imaging studies, for instance, the Zinner syndrome in the male genital tract can be identified using computed tomography and imaging.
- Track 17-1: Case Reports on Abdominal Imaging
- Track 17-2: Case Reports on Vascular Interventional Radiology
- Track 17-3: Case Reports on Musculoskeletal Imaging
- Track 17-4: Case Reports on Breast Imaging
- Track 17-5: Case Reports on Emergency Radiology
- Track 17-6: Case Reports on Radiation Oncology
The branch of medicine that deals with the endocrine system and its secretions (hormones) is known as Endocrinology. Case Reports in Endocrinology is all about various endocrine disorders their unusual occurrence, treatment and the follow up of the diseased patient. An Endocrinology related disease usually falls under three categories : tumors, gland hypersecretion and gland hyposecretion. Type 2 diabetes has recently become an increasing menace in the society and also among children and adolescents and many case reports on diabetes have come up as a result.
The branch of Medicine that deals with the anatomy ,physiology and diseases of the eye is known as ophthalmology.Ophthalmologists are medically trained to provide patients with total eye care using medical, surgical, and rehabilitative services. In doing so, an ophthalmologist prescribes vision services, including glasses and contact lenses. Due to the increasing incidence and prevalence of eye related disorders such as presbyopia, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy among the aging population and low awareness about the ophthalmic disorders, especially in developing countries. This is primarily due to the lack of awareness amongst rural population about the various ophthalmic disorders such as cataract. Hence there is a huge need and demand of eye care professionals to deal with eye ailments and diseases. According to a study it is estimated that around 48% of world population is blind because of cataract and more than 60 million people suffer from glaucoma and it is estimated that the number would rise to 80 million by the end of 2020. Ageing population is the leading cause for refractive error problem in countries like the USA and Europe, it is noticed that the refractive error problem is mostly seen in population ageing more than 40 years
A clinical autopsy is usually performed by an pathologist to find out the correct diagnosis of the cause of death of an individual and it serves as an important tool in hospitals for quality control. Clinical autopsies differ from the medico-legal autopsies. The former needs permission from the patient’s family to do these investigations. For example, in the United Kingdom clinical autopsies cannot be performed without prior permission